MILESTONES OF HYDROLOGY

200 YEARS OF HYDROLOGIC THOUGHT


 

[160531]

chezy
Antoine Chézy   
NUMBER AUTHOR SUBJECT MILESTONE COUNTRY YEAR
01 Chezy open-channel flow First to express the mean flow velocity in terms of channel roughness, hydraulic radius, and bed slope. France 1776
02 Lagrange unsteady flow Developed the equation for relative celerity of small waves in open-channel flow. France 1788
03 Dalton evaporation Developed the general formula for mass-transfer evaporation rate. United Kingdom 1802
04 St. Venant unsteady flow Formulated the equations of unsteady flow in open channels. France 1848
05 Mulvany flood hydrology Developed the concept of runoff concentration, which is the basis of the rational method. Ireland 1851
06 Stokes sedimentation Formulated the terminal fall velocity of a particle in still water. United Kingdom 1851
07 Darcy groundwater flow Developed the law of flow through porous media. France 1856
08 Breton unsteady flow First to formulate the concept of flood wave celerity. France 1867
09 Froude open-channel flow Formulated the dimensionless number which characterizes a flow regime as subcritical, critical, or supercritical. United Kingdom 1871
10 Reynolds open-channel flow Formulated the dimensionless number which characterizes a flow regime as laminar, transitional, or turbulent flow. United Kingdom 1883
11 Kuichling flood hydrology Developed the rational formula to calculate peak flow from small catchments. USA 1889
12 Manning open-channel flow Expressed the mean flow velocity in terms of channel roughness, hydraulic radius (to the 2/3 power), and bed slope. Ireland 1891
13 Seddon flood wave celerity Formulated the flood wave celerity as the slope of the discharge-stage rating divided by the stream's top width. USA 1900
14 Green and Ampt infiltration Developed the first physically based model of infiltration.Australia 1911
15 Bowen evaporation Expressed the ratio of sensible heat to latent heat in terms of climatological variables. United Kingdom 1926
16 Courant, Friedrichs, and Lewy computational hydraulics Developed the numerical stability condition defined as the ratio of physical wave celerity to grid celerity.Germany 1928
17 Pearson flood frequency Developed the widely used Log Pearson III method for flood frequency analysis. United Kingdom 1930
18 Sherman flood hydrology Developed the unit hydrograph, a conceptual model to convert rainfall into runoff in midsize to large catchments. USA 1932
19 Horton infiltration Formulated the conceptual model of infiltration rate in terms of an exponential decay. USA 1933
20 Snyder flood hydrology Developed the first synthetic unit hydrograph. USA 1938
21 McCarthy flood routing Developed the Muskingum method of flood routing. USA 1938
22 Horton overland flow Formulated the conceptual model of overland flow. USA 1938
23 Theis groundwater flow Formulated the Theis method for well hydraulics. USA 1940
24 Kirpich flood hydrology Developed a formula for time of concentration based only on catchment slope and length. USA 1940
25 Gumbel flood frequency Developed a widely used method for flood frequency analysis. Germany/USA 1941
26 Creager, Justin, and Hinds flood hydrology Plotted flood peak per unit of drainage area as a function of drainage area, quantifying runoff diffusion for the first time. USA 1945
27 Vedernikov roll waves Developed the criterion for the instability of free-surface flow. Soviet Union 1945
28 Clark flood routing Routed the unit increment of effective rainfall, first through a time-area histogram, and then through a linear reservoir. USA 1945
29 Izzard overland flow Formulated the conceptual model of overland flow under laminar flow conditions. USA 1946
30 Penman evaporation Developed a formula for evaporation rate which weighs energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation rates. United Kingdom 1948
31 Thornthwaite evaporation Developed a formula for potential evapotranspiration based on mean monthly temperature and latitudinal data. USA 1948
32 Blaney and Criddle evaporation Developed a formula for consumptive use of water by crops. USA 1950
33 Hayami flood routing Pioneered the mathematical treatment of flood waves as diffusion waves, which led to the concept of channel hydraulic diffusivity. Japan 1951
34 Craya unsteady flow Explained the Vedernikov criterion for roll wave formation, based on the Seddon celerity exceeding the Lagrange celerity. France 1945/
1952
35 Budyko and Drozdov hydrologic cycle Developed a conceptual model of a coupled land surface-atmosphere system, which substantially improved our understanding of the hydrologic cycle. Soviet Union 1953
36 Mockus hydrologic abstraction Developed the NRCS runoff curve number method to abstract total rainfall into effective rainfall. USA 1954
37 Lighthill and Whitham unsteady flow Formulated the mathematical theory of kinematic waves. United Kingdom 1955
38 Mockus flood hydrology Developed the NRCS synthetic unit hydrograph. USA 1957
39 Cooper and Rorabaugh baseflow Formulated the theory of baseflow recession in terms of physically based parameters. USA 1963
40 Wooding overland flow Pioneered the calculation of overland flow with an open-book schematization.New Zealand 1965
41 Monteith evaporation Improved the Penman formula by expressing the mass-transfer evaporation on a physical basis. United Kingdom 1966
42 Woolhiser and Liggett overland flow Developed the criterion for the applicability of kinematic waves to overland flow in terms of the kinematic flow number. USA 1967
43 Cunge flood routing Explained the Muskingum method in terms of the numerical diffusion of the discrete analog of the kinematic wave equation. Poland/France 1969
44 Dooge unsteady flow Expressed the channel hydraulic diffusivity in terms of the Froude number, extending Hayami's diffusion analogy of flood waves to the realm of dynamic waves. Ireland 1973
45 Shuttleworth and Wallace evaporation Developed an evaporation equation in terms of resistances associated with the plants, soil, and water. United Kingdom 1985

MILESTONES OF HYDROLOGY

200 YEARS OF HYDROLOGIC THOUGHT


 

[160531]

manning
Robert Manning   

You are our visitor No.   Count   Thanks for your interest.